Design decisions to plan early for reduced cost in fast casual restaurants.
When building or renovating a restaurant for fast food, fast casual or take out, initial design decisions will save cost.
Starting a Restaurant Design
Restaurants are Assembly Group A-2 Classification
When planning a new restaurant, decisions will be different than a restaurant renovation. Keep in mind, there are important architectural and occupational requirements for each.
First, all restaurant buildings are an Assembly Occupancy Classification. To receive a Use and Occupancy Permit for a new restaurant design, you must meet International Building Codes requirements for Assembly Group A-2.
This assembly classification is typical for many architects and contractors, so restaurant owners should easily find experienced professionals.
IBC 303.3: Assembly Group A-2 with examples.
Plan of 312 Pizza Restaurant by CMArchitects
Determine the Use of Restaurant Areas
Second, you need to begin calculating the restaurants occupant load. The use of areas within the building determines the occupant load.
For A-2 code requirement, use areas would include:
Assembly with fixed seats:
1 person per seat
Assembly without fixed seats:
Standing Space 5 net sf per person
Chairs only 7 net sf per person
Tables and chairs 15 net sf per person
200 gross sf per person
Accessory storage areas:
300 gross sf per person
The most affordable building type for a fast casual or take out restaurant is:
– Construction Type 5-B (Unsprinkled)
– Single story less than 6,000 square feet.
This Construction Type includes no cost for plumbing upgrades for a costly sprinkler system, no cost for fire resistant construction at walls and roofs, and no fire separation within the restaurant (i.e. the dining and kitchen do not need a separation wall).
Determine the Occupant Load of the Restaurant
For Group A-2 Occupancy with fixed seating, the seats are counted to determine the occupant load. Seating for multiple people without dividing arms (like benches) are calculated at 18 linear inches of seating length per person.
Additional occupied space (like a waiting area) is calculated using the occupant load factor for that space, which is then added to the number of fixed seats.
Net and Gross Floor Area of a Restaurant
Gross floor area is measured within the inside surface of the walls, and includes all occupied and non occupied spaces.
Bathrooms, closets, electrical/mechanical rooms, and other non occupied spaces are never subtracted from the gross floor area.
Net floor area is calculated for occupied areas only.
Non-occupied spaces like corridors, stairs, bathrooms, electrical/mechanical rooms, closets, and fixed equipment are subtracted from the gross floor area to determine the net floor area.
McDonald’s Interior Renovations by CMArchitects
Check out our Restaurant Design
See our Fast Casual Restaurant Design Approach
Other Related Restaurant Design articles:
Restaurant.org’s Front-of-House Operations article about Restaurant Renovations is a great resource on the design upgrades for your restaurant type.
If you are new to restaurant ownership, or are curious about restaurants as a business, we recommend Toast’s Restaurant Business Plan Tips. Always be prepared!
Fire suppression systems are a very costly line item for restaurants, especially if your restaurant design did not meet minimum requirements during permitting. Use this fire suppression system vs cost to ask the right questions from the beginning – Kitchen Fire Suppression Systems